Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion.

The number of 2 minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing lead to converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) in the 2 moment interval degree into frequency counts during the system degree (wide range of periods for which sex that is same behavior took place in the episode). Consequently, the reliability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation associated with the percentage of variance into the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information including the regularity matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized given that criterion for appropriate dependability. Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact mens cocks same intercourse behavior that is sexual .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for explore nonheterosexual intimate problems had been .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in year 2.

Information Analyses

To resolve the initial group of research questions about the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( ag e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse sexual behavior and containing mention intercourse linked to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with one of these nominal information. When it comes to 2nd collection of research concerns, we utilized just those implies that contained nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment intervals ( ag e.g., range periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to spot significant distinctions across teams.

Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content

About one out of six programs inside our examples included any sexual content (behavior or talk) associated with nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual sexual content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) towards the 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining Table 1 displays the portion of suggests that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals by program genres, by kind of community, and also by time of day aired. For system kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC along with Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). Pertaining to time of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.

Note: Within form of community and period of day aired, percentages when you look at the column that is same don’t share subscripts differ at p dining Table 1 ). More often than not, there was clearly a high amount of communication between a genre’s general positions for exact exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems. Furthermore, genres’ standings on these two factors were fairly stable throughout the two tv periods.

Three genres had been consistently lower in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals either in 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, respectively, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0per cent, respectively, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, respectively, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to own the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component film. Created for television films and programs classified as “other” additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nevertheless, both these groups included just a small amount of programs (letter = 7), rendering it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres when you look at the tables, we usually do not emphasize the findings connected with them.